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Thread: Hypothermia

  1. #121
    Hypothermia could be a condition during which the body's core temperature drops below that needed for traditional metabolism and body functions.This can be typically though of to be but 35°C.Characteristics symptoms depend upon the temperature. In delicate physiological condition, there's shivering and state of mind.

  2. #122

    Was not sure where to put this but Glossop Mountain Rescue added a post about frostbite to day! As they had a case of it

    ase Study: Runner with Frost Bite

    We were recently contacted by a local runner who had been running around Bleaklow and by his own admission made a mistake and failed to wear appropriate clothing and prepare for the recent weather conditions we have been having. Unfortunately conditions got the better of him and as a result been diagnosed with "Second Degree" frost bite. He is currently being treated with antibiotics, and wanted us to raise awareness about how easy it is to find yourself in difficulty with potentially life changing injuries. We've included a short guide about frostbite containing some really good information about the condition including the signs and symptoms to look out for. We wish our runner a speedy recovery and hope this guide is of use.

    Frostbite is an injury that is caused by exposure of parts of the body to the cold. The cold causes freezing of your skin and underlying tissues. Your fingers, toes and feet are most commonly affected. There are different degrees of frostbite. In superficial frostbite, the skin can recover fully with prompt treatment. However, if frostbite is deep, tissue damage can be permanent and tissue loss can occur. For example, the end of a finger or toe can gradually separate off. The most important way of preventing frostbite is to get out of the cold. If you are exposed to the cold, make sure that you have adequate protective clothing.

    What is frostbite?
    Frostbite is an injury that is caused by exposure of parts of your body to temperatures below freezing point. The cold causes freezing of your skin and underlying tissues. The fingers, toes and feet are most commonly affected but other extremities including the nose, ears, and the cheeks can also develop frostbite.

    What causes frostbite?
    Usually your blood carries oxygen to all parts of your body so that your body tissues are kept healthy. As a protective response, when your body is exposed to extreme cold, blood vessels narrow (constrict) so that blood (and oxygen) are diverted away from your extremities to your vital organs to keep your body alive. After some time, this lack of blood supply and oxygen to the skin can start to cause damage to the cells.

    In areas of the body affected by frostbite, ice crystals form and cells and blood vessels become damaged. Blood clots can also form in small blood vessels which further reduces the chance of blood and oxygen getting to the affected tissues. The chance of frostbite is increased the longer that you are exposed to the cold temperatures. If the cold temperatures are accompanied by wind (producing wind chill which brings the temperature down further) or high altitude there is a greater risk. Generally, frostbite is worst in lower temperatures.

    How common is frostbite and who gets it? Frostbite most commonly affects the following groups of people:

    •People who work outdoors in the cold.
    •Homeless people.
    •Winter outdoor sports enthusiasts such as skiers and climbers.

    However, it can affect anyone who is exposed to low temperatures (below freezing) - in particular, those who wear inadequate clothing.

    If you have underlying health problems such as narrowing of the arteries, mainly occurring in the legs (peripheral vascular disease) or diabetes, you have an increased risk of developing frostbite. If you take certain medicines that narrow (constrict) your blood vessels, your risk is increased. Beta-blockers are a good example of this. You are more at risk of developing frostbite if you smoke, as the chemicals in cigarettes can cause your blood vessels to constrict.

    The different degrees of frostbite:
    Rather like burns, frostbite injuries are classified by the degree of injury. The degree of frostbite basically refers to how deep the frostbite injury goes. Your skin has two layers - the outer layer (epidermis) and the dermis. The dermis sits just under the epidermis. Beneath the dermis is a layer of fat, and then the deeper structures such as muscles and tendons.
    First-degree frostbite just affects the epidermis.
    Second-degree frostbite may affect the epidermis and part of the dermis.
    Third-degree frostbite affects the epidermis, the dermis and the fatty tissue beneath the dermis.
    Fourth-degree frostbite affects the full thickness of the skin, the tissues that lie underneath the skin, and also deeper structures such as muscles, tendons and bone.
    Frostbite can be described using these four levels but it may simply be described as superficial frostbite or deep frostbite. Superficial frostbite corresponds to first-degree or second-degree frostbite. Deep frostbite corresponds to third-degree or fourth-degree frostbite. These are important because superficial frostbite means there is likely to be very little or no tissue loss. Deep frostbite suggests there will be greater tissue loss.


    What are the symptoms of frostbite?
    Frostbite can cause feelings of cold and firmness in the affected area, such as the fingers or toes. Stinging, burning and numbness can also occur. You may experience pain, throbbing, burning or an electric current-like sensation when the affected area is re-warmed.

    In first-degree frostbite, the affected area of skin usually becomes white and feels numb. Sometimes the skin is red. It may also feel hard or stiff. If it is treated quickly, the skin usually recovers fully. First-degree frostbite is sometimes called frost nip.

    In second-degree frostbite, the affected skin is often red, or may become blue. It feels frozen and hard. There is also usually quite a lot of swelling of the affected area. Blisters filled with a clear or milky fluid appear on the skin.

    In third-degree frostbite, skin can be white or blue or blotchy. Blisters also develop and can be filled with blood. Over some weeks, black thick scabs form. The skin feels hard and cold.

    In fourth-degree frostbite, there is damage to the full thickness of the skin and also the underlying tissues such as muscle, tendons and bone. The skin is initially deep red and mottled and then
    Images below of the Bleaklow fell runner

  3. #123
    Member Bogmonster's Avatar
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    Mar 2007
    Thought with winter approaching this deserves a bump

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